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Total Applied Toxicity (TAT) icon

Total Applied Toxicity (TAT)

Here you find information related to a paper on the total applied toxicity of pesticides used in U.S. agriculture between 1992 and 2016, which appeared in Science (2021).


Schulz, R., Bub, S., Petschick, L. L., Stehle, S., & Wolfram, J. (2021). Applied pesticide toxicity shifts toward plants and invertebrates, even in GM crops. Science, 372(6537), 81-84.

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Toxicity Thresholds

We provide a table in which all the regulatory toxicity thresholds for each pesticide and each species group considered are listed. The data have been derived from regulatory pesticide registration documents and databases as described in the method section of our above-cited paper.

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Applied Pesticide amounts in Bt- versus non Bt-corn

We provide a table in which the total mass of insecticides applied to corn in the U.S. are provided separated for Bt- and non-Bt-corn varieties. The subset of GfK Kynetec AgroTrak data used in this analysis represent the total mass of insecticide used in Bt and non-Bt corn in the 13 federal states in two-year moving average aggregates.

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We provide a zip archive which contains the R-code relevant for the data analyses related to the above-cited paper.

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We also provide a web application which contains 3-D plots illustrating the temporal development of the TAT for different species groups in comparison with applied masses and acreages. Displayed here is the insecticide TAT for animal species groups in corn.